Gloss meter is commonly spelt as glossmeter. It is an instrument which measures the reflection of gloss on a surface. Gloss is measured by projecting a ray of light at a fixed intensity and angle onto a surface and measuring the amount of light which is reflected.
Types of gloss meters
There are many gloss meters available on the market including those which vary in angles as well as manufacturers. See below for a list of different angled gloss meters:
As gloss is categorised as either matte, semi or high gloss, it is measured at different angles depending upon the surface. For example, if a product is a low gloss product, it should be measured using a 20-degree gloss meter. Furthermore, semi-gloss is measured at 60 degrees and high gloss at 80 degrees.
Please note: this is subject to change depending on the gloss meter used for the application and the surface being measured.
Uses a gloss meter
Many different industries require a gloss meter to measure the gloss of their products. Find out the uses of a gloss meter in a variety of different industries below:
Paintings and coatings industry: Determines the gloss intensity of their products.
Automotive: It helps to ensure consistency in the process of manufacturing.
Furniture industry: Allows the measurement of sheen intensity in products.
Electronic manufacturers: Ensures that all the intended gloss standards are achieved with all their products.
Many people across the world may have never come across or known about the element Neodymium but as you would imagine unless you were in the magnetics industry why would you? What you don’t realise is how neodymium is present in a lot of everyday items that you would not expect to contain neodymium or strong permanent neodymium magnets as an essential element for the product to function. In this article, we are going to explain the properties of Neodymium and how the element has been researched to create the strongest magnets in the world.
Neodymium is an element with the symbols Nd and was first discovered by Karl Auer in 1885. This element derived from didymium when its existence was revealed through atomic spectroscopy. Didymium is a unique glass which is most commonly used for heavy-duty goggles such as welding goggles. The neodymium glass which is extracted is used to make professional medical lasers for cosmetic surgery and many more applications which we will discuss further later.
The natural abundance of this element makes it hard to extract and researchers have spent years finding numerous techniques to source this element including minerals monazite and bastnaesite. It was found that Neodymium can be extracted from specific mineral via ion exchange and solvent extraction.
Neodymium and The World’s Strongest Magnets
In 1984 general motors started researching it neodymium as a replacement for the highly-priced samarium cobalt permanent magnet and what they found was astonishing. By creating an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron a permanent magnet is produced that a few grams of could lift a thousand times its own weight. This was not only a scientific breakthrough but could revolutionise the magnetics industry as neodymium magnets are much cheaper to produce, lighter and stronger than any other magnet available.
Everyday Application of Neodymium Magnets
Since there creation neodymium magnets have been used across a vast variety of industries such as motoring manufacturing, medical science, aerospace and more due to there ease of application and beneficial properties they bring. Listed below are a few items that rely on neodymium to properly function that you wouldn’t realise require magnets.
A coded welder is someone who has completed a Welder Approval Test to a specific welding configuration.
The method of welding all depends on the job in hand, some welding codes can be very specific while some are more general.
Coded welding is done to BS EN standards in the UK while the USA uses the ASME IX standard. A welding specification is provided for the job, this is used by the welder to provide a sample which matches the welding to be completed.
The sample is examined by an approved tester to see if the welder can complete the job, if the welder passes then they are coded to that specification.
Each specification must be coded separately, being qualified in one specification doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll be coded in another. To become a multi-coded welder each specification requires testing and examining.
Coded Welding Training
The training for coded welding must be fully UKAS approved in the United Kingdom and is usually carried out by insurance certified individuals.
There are different levels of coded welding training everything from college level right through to more advanced certifications. Standards are set by the governing body for welding in the UK these include: ASME IX, BS EN ISO 9606 – 1/2, BS4872 – 1/2 and ISO 15614-1.
Many different types of welding are used in industry to produce products. MMA (Manual Metal Arc), TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas), MIG (Metal Inert Gas) and FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding) are the most types of welding used today.
The gear cutting industry is a very competitive and challenging industry. This bespoke and precise methods of work require the highest of quality, fully qualified and experienced staff to ensure that they apply the appropriate gear cutting method available to the gear cutting company so that the customers requirements are met producing an excellent and reliable product.
The methods available to a gear cutting company can vary dependant on the equipment and services that you provide to you customers and clients. The 4 most recognised and common gear cutting processes within this industry are Broaching, Hobbing, Milling and shaping. Each gear cutting method has its specific applications dependant on the gear that is being cut and produced. These process’s as well as precisely and intricately cutting gears to shape are conducted with a fast and efficient turn around time in mind for your business. This is important to us as we understand that if the gear in question is an essential part of one of your machines or assembly lines this can cause down time within the factory or warehouse.
Gear Cutting Company Services
As mentioned above there are 4 main gear cutting processes used across a gear cutting company that offer different methods and fine cuts tailored to the measurements and requirements set by the customers.
These Gear Cutting Company Methods Include:
The broaching process will be most frequently used in a gear cutting company that tends to cut very large gears to measure using a spline or vertical broach. Broaching is one of the more expensive methods however it is outstanding for creating the tooth shape of a gear and producing large gears in huge volumes.
Hobbing is one of the most common methods and can be seen for almost all production run sizes although seen to be most ideal for medium gears. This process of gear cutting uses a hob to cut teeth with every revolution for a gear.
A gear cutting company would use the milling cutting process if they produce helical gears. This method simply uses the precision of the milling machine or jig Grinder.
This is one of the most convenient and simple process’s, shaping uses a continuous same plane rotational cut to cut the gear to shape.
A Steel Supplier is a company that stocks, constructs, supplies and distributes a variety of steel products to its consumer.
Steel Suppliersplay a vital role in the Steel Industry with over 65% of structural steel within the UK is supplied via a Steel Stockholder.
A Steel Stockholder can supply any quantity and mix of steel required for a project and can supply a variety of products including heavy structural sections, hot rolled and cold formed structural steel products, universal beams, columns plate and bespoke finished products. All steel products supplied must fall in line with the Construction Products Regulation policies (CPR). Meaning all aluminium and structural steel must show the CE Marking. This marking shows compliance with EN 1090 – 1 (The European standard that applied to structural metalwork).
The majority of steel suppliers have on-site tools and machinery to construct products before distributing to its customer. This is a huge benefit as it means strict deadlines can be met with a fast turnaround as all work is carried out under one roof. Steel Suppliers are able to offer steel processing to your exact specification. Cut to length, punched or fabricated to manufacture exactly to customer drawings and specifications. This service provides customers with the highest quality steel products.
On average the timescale from design to delivery is around 10 working weeks. This gives enough time for the Steel Supplier to resolve any design queries with the consumer, model and detail the steel work, complete the fabrication process to then deliver the steel works to the construction site.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of various metals using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer or die, basically pressing and squeezing the metal using a large amount of pressure. The forging process can create metal parts that are stronger than any other metal working process.
There are various forging methods such as:
Impression Die Forging: Impression die forging pounds or presses metal between two dies that contain a pre-cut profile of the desired part.
Cold forging: Most forging is done as hot work, however cold forging is a variation that encompasses many processes to yield a more diverse range of part shapes.
Open die forging: This is performed between flat dies with no pre-cut profiles; larger parts can be hammered or pressed into shape this way.
Seamless rolled ring forging: This is typically performed by punching a hole in a thick piece of metal; this is then rolled and squeezed creating a donut shape.
Upset Forgings: This is achieved by positioning a pre heated bar into a groove to hold it in place, adding pressure then reforming it into the shape of the mould.
Hand Forgings: These are performed by skilled workers by hand using traditional methods
Drop Forgings: This is achieved by compressing pre heated material between two dies and through a sequence of production steps can be made into the desired shape.
The art of forging techniques dates back to at least 4000 BC. Fire in the early days was utilized as a heat and light source, it was also used as against the wild animals as a protection shield and was used to cook food. It was soon discovered that precious metals like gold, silver and copper could be given a distinct shape with fire; this is how the craft of forging metals was invented. Bronze and iron also went through the forging process to produce tools, weapons and jewellery.
There are many metals that can be used in forging today, such as aluminium, brass, carbon steel, copper alloy steel, bronze and stainless steel. Physical properties such as strength and toughness are much better after a metal has been forged. Forging is superior to casting or machining bar stock because the metals natural grain flow is made to conform to the shape of the product.
Nowadays the forging industry skilfully produces a wide range of forged steel tools for use in the aerospace, automotive, agriculture and energy industries. Forged parts help assemble things you can rely on on a day to day basis such as airplanes, engines, tractors and ships to name just a few.
The forging process is superior to casting or machining bar stock because the metals natural grain flow is made to conform to the shape of the product. Forgings are superior in tensile and shear loads due to the utilization of the grain flow. Forgings can be nearly any shape, this reduces the need for joining multiple pieces, reducing the joint can improve overall strength of the unit as the forging does not need to be welded or fastened together. Forging is more reliable and generally cheaper in total cost than casting or fabrication.
Tools of the trade include the hammer and anvil, tongs, chisels and swage blocks, not forgetting the forge where you will actually heat up your work.